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Oceanic Linguistics was created at the request of the Panel on Research Needs in Paciﬁc Languages of the Tenth Paciﬁc Science Congress in 1961. Its object is to provide competent information and better communication across national boundaries on current research bearing on the languages of the Oceanic area. Priority is given to languages of the Austronesian family (including European-based pidgins and creoles), although articles on Papuan or Australian languages will be considered.
All submissions should be made through our online system:
Editorial inquiries should be addressed to the editors at firstname.lastname@example.org
, or, if by post, to Daniel Kaufman, Dept. of Linguistics, Queens College, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Queens, NY 11367-1597, USA.
Instructions for Contributors
INITIAL SUBMISSION. An anonymized electronic manuscript using the Times New Roman (TNR) font is requested of all authors as part of the initial submission. Linux Libertine (http://libertine-fonts.org/), Charis SIL (https://software.sil.org/charis/), and other Unicode fonts are also acceptable. All submissions should be made through our journal management system (eJournal Press), which will automatically convert manuscripts to PDF format. Authors are referred to Phonetic symbol guide by Geoffrey K. Pullum and William A. Ladusaw (University of Chicago Press, 1996) for use of IPA symbols and other diacritics.
MANUSCRIPTS. Manuscripts should be prepared on letter-size or A4 paper, with generous margins on all sides. Editorial style follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), as implemented in current issues of Oceanic Linguistics. Spelling follows Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Also followed are The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses, including the standard abbreviations listed there: https://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php. Number all pages consecutively to assist in the reviewing process. For the final version, acknowledgments should be included in the first note. Please omit or black out acknowledgements in the initial submission to maintain anonymity. Include a list of nonstandard abbreviations (only those not in the Leipzig rules), separated by semicolons and commas, in an early note (e.g., CL, clitic; TEL, telic). Use tabs rather than the space bar to align words and glosses in sentence examples. Place references at the end, with the information in each reference arranged according to the style used in current issues of Oceanic Linguistics, including full names of authors and editors as given, and both city and name of publisher. Note especially the style for works appearing in multiauthor volumes: “In Title, ed. by [editor(s)], pp–pp.”
FORMATTING. Keep formatting to a minimum. Manuscripts should be single-spaced. Please follow as closely as possible the style used in Oceanic Linguistics articles and reviews, with forms referred to within English text in italic type, but forms given in lists and tables in roman type, glosses in single quotes, quotations in double quotes, and so forth. Use boldface only in headings.
TABLES & FIGURES. Any material that you want to have appear entirely on one page should be put in a table or figure. Figures should appear in a standard graphic format, and should have dimensions that fit an OL page (maximum width, 26 picas). For the initial submission, please keep tables and figures in the body of the paper. Tables and figures should also be uploaded separately to the journal management system as image files.
OL style follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003) (“CMS chapter.section” in the following citations), as implemented in current issues of OL. Spelling follows Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language.
Punctuation & Capital Letters
Comma. OL style is to use the serial comma: (Starosta, Pawley, and Reid).
Apostrophe. OL style with words ending in s is to use s’s: (Collins’s study).
Quotation marks. Double quotes are put “outside.” That is, outside periods, commas, and question and exclamation marks. Used for quotes, special terminology. Single quotes ‘inside’. Used for glosses, translated concepts, and for quotes within quotes. But delete final point in: 112. (3) *butaq ‘fish sp.’.
Exception: single quotes are used outside in translations of example sentences:
Nanti dapat duit rencana aku bayar balik lah.
‘Soon as I get the money, I’ll pay you back.’
Parentheses/brackets. Square brackets are used for parentheses within parentheses (. . . [. . .]). When numbering examples within text, surround numbers with parentheses: (3), not 3).
Spaces and tabs. There should be no sequences of spaces in your document, That is, there should be only a single space between words and sentences (unlike a certain style of typing that always put two spaces between sentences). Please eliminate all sequences of spaces from your document. Use tabs for wider spacing (for tabular matter, for example), but use only single tabs with their positions specially set—do not use sequences of tabs either.
Diacritical marks. In the unlikely event that the manuscript includes special characters not found in Times New Roman or the aforementioned Unicode fonts, replace each special character in the unformatted electronic file with a distinctive alphanumeric code (e.g., Anejo<tilde-m> for Anejom,̃ ja<macron-n>it for jan̄it). The codes may be ad hoc, as long as they are clear and unambiguous. Include with the manuscript a list of all codes used.
Hyphen. Be sure that compound adjectives in front of a noun are clear. Insert a hyphen to avoid ambiguity: high-order protolanguage, person-marking affixes, word-initial position. Once a hyphen is introduced, be consistent throughout the article. Lower-case words preceded by many prefixes are not hyphenated: noninitial, coocur, counterintuitive, interrelated, metalanguage, multifaceted, preempt, postparticle, protoform, reexamine, sociolinguistics. Further examples and exceptions are given in CMS 7.90.
En-dash. (Alt-0150) Use for inclusive numbers, as a minus sign, for juxtaposed opposites or extremes, including bi- or multilingual designations: 128–34, 1934–38, –HI, north–south axis, Ivatan–Filipino–English dictionary.
Em-dash. (Alt-0151) Uses include amplifying or explaining, indicating sudden breaks, and so forth. No more than two should be used in a sentence, and there should be no space on either side of the em-dash. Three em-dashes are used in reference lists when an author designation is repeated.
Capital letters. Do not capitalize types of linguistic rules (assimilation, tone sandhi, movement) but specific rules (Tone Mapping, Assimilation, Accent Association) may be capitalized in moderation. A rule referred to repeatedly in a paper should be abbreviated, possibly with small capitals, or in lower case. Do not capitalize grammatical classes (noun, gerund, participle). To quote from CMS, “Chicago generally prefers a ‘down’ style—the parsimonious use of capitals.” Thus: “in the appendix,” “in section 2,” “in the northeast,” anglicize, arabic numerals, biblical reference.
Linguistic signs/spacing/order spaces around signs. OL style is to place spaces around greater/less than, equals, and plus signs between words. (*urub > oro) but (> oro); (oro < *urub) but (< *urub); (rake = ‘stomach’) but (= ‘stomach’); (noun + noun); (Head + Head); (Head + Modifier)
Protoforms in roman type. Protoforms introduced by asterisks should be in roman typeface: *urub, not *urub.
Colons. Use nonbreaking space before the colon in correspondence formulas: Karo Batak mbulan ‘white, pale’ : Tae bulan ‘albino’
Order. Parentheticals follow the headword gloss if they contain a separate gloss:
- (2) *budaq (dbl. *barak) ‘white’
- (3) *gateq ‘coconut milk’ (dbl. *gateq ‘sap’).
Mathematic formulas. Use sans serif characters in math formulas.
Outline format roman numerals. Avoid roman numerals—use arabic where necessary.
Abstracts and numbering. Abstracts, required for all articles and squibs, are not part of any paragraph-numbering system. Abstracts should be brief and self-contained, and not dependent on the reference list, nor should they have footnotes. For examples, see “issue contents” at https://muse.jhu.edu/issue/24249.
Numbering for outlines. Outlines begin with number 1, not 0.
Numbers and Dates
Numbers. Use Chicago style numbers in text: “spell out single-digit numbers and use numerals for all others” CMS 9.6: alternative rule. Use commas in thousands: 3,065.
Inclusive numbers. Use abbreviated numbers for years (1968–80, 1990–91, but 1898– 1903) and for page ranges (46–48, 100–104, 101–8, 1103–4, 125–28, 498–510).
Inclusive numbers in a published title appear as published, no matter what style. The hyphen between inclusive numbers should always be converted to the en-dash (Alt-0150) in typesetting, and in formatted electronic copy and hardcopy printed from it. Please convert in manuscript preparation where possible.
Percentages. Use numeral and the word “percent” in text; %-sign may be used in tables.
Dates. 1000 BC, but AD 1000 (BC and AD typeset as small caps). Write out centuries (twentieth century), but 1920s and 1900s (and not 1920’s and 1900’s).
Language names. Follow the proposal set forth by Lawrence A. Reid, “Comments on abbreviation conventions for Austronesian language names” in OL 31(1):131–34 (1992), using small caps and no periods. A quick summary is as follows: (1) four-letter names remain unchanged; (2) other abbreviations should normally have three letters; (3) the first letter should be capital, the second and third small unless they refer to a capitalized name;
(4) a small-cap font should be used; (5) Protolanguage names retain the abbreviation for the language family, with an initial uppercase P preposed. Examples: TAG, Tagalog; PSW, Port Sandwich; PAN, Proto-Austronesian; PMP, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.
“Page(s)”. Do not use “p.” or “pp.”, except to avoid ambiguity.
Scholarly. Standard abbreviations (etc., e.g., i.e., cf.) are acceptable only in footnotes and parenthetically in text. Elsewhere spell out (CMS 15.45), such as “etc.” written out as “and so forth.” Always follow “e.g.” and “i.e.” with a comma.
Period, point. Greater parsimony in the use of periods is to be found in the 15th ed. of CMS than in the 14th, with the general recommendation, “use periods with abbreviations that appear in lowercase letters; use no periods with [those] that appear in full capitals or small capitals” (15.4). Of course there are many exceptions, but two instances of consistency that can be mentioned here are the abbreviations for language names (generally three letters, with lower case portions in small caps) in OL, and for academic degrees: PAN, POC, TAG, MAL, MRS; PhD, MA.
Morpheme glosses. Follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules and use the standard abbreviations from that list. Any additional abbreviations needed in your paper should be summarized in an early footnote, using the format: DIR, directional; PREP, preposition. Use equals signs (=) to mark clitic boundaries..
Affiliations and addresses of authors. Author’s affiliation—given at beginning of article on line following author’s name—should be limited to top-level name of institution, and should not include names of departments or other sublevel units. Email address (and optionally, mailing address) may be given in 8 pt. type at the end of the article, when space permits without beginning a new page. Addresses of coauthors may also be given, space permitting. When it is desired that all correspondence concerning a multiauthored article be directed to a single author, only that author’s email and/or mailing address should be given.
Block quotes, prose extracts. OL style is to not offset quotations under 100 words, unless special emphasis is required. Lean toward running in quotes.
Book review style. Bibliographic information: Alice T. Author. 1990. Book title in italics: First up, rest down. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. xiv + 261 pp. ISBN #. Price, paper/cloth. Note that subtitles are also “first up” (that is, they begin with a capital letter), and they are preceded by a colon. Price and other details can usually be obtained from publisher’s web site.
Footnotes/references style. OL style is to use footnotes rather than endnotes and to incorporate short, basic references into the text using the CMS author-date system. We recommend citing the initial text footnote from the introductory heading, not from the title. It and all other text footnotes should use superscript arabic numerals. If footnotes to tables are cited separately, daggers and similar symbols should be used; do not use asterisks, since these have other uses in linguistics..
In-text citation examples: (Blust 1970:348–49, n.7) (Blust forthcoming) (Blust n.d.) (Starosta 1971a,b) (Collins, pers. comm.) (Dempwolff 1934–38). Do not use passim or ff. except when not to do so would be cumbersome; give beginning and final pages for spans: (Chen 1987:117–19). Use “et al.” only when citing a work with more than three authors. In reference lists, give issue number in parentheses only when pagination is not continuous throughout the volume: Classical Philology 94(2): 205–9; Oceanic Linguistics 45:133–52. When the issue number is included, there is a space after the colon.
Authors. In references, use authors’ and editors’ given names when these are what appear in the original. Do not use just initials, unless this is what the author him/herself uses. When initials are normally used by a given author, separate each by a space: R. M. W. Dixon, not R.M.W. Dixon. With two or more authors, use “and,” not “&.”
Capitalization. First word of book or article title (or subtitle following colon) is cap, remainder no cap (unless a proper noun). Title of series or journal in regular title caps: Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication No. 28.
Edited collections. Note the treatment of articles that form chapters of books: AUTHOR(S). yyyy. CHAPTER-TITLE. In BOOK-TITLE, ed. by EDITOR(S), INCLUSIVE-ARTICLE-PAGES. SERIES. CITY: PUBLISHER. Give full names of all
editors. Do not use “pp.” Please note especially “In BOOK TITLE”, not “In EDITOR(S).” Only one city need be given, the first listed, where the main editorial offices are located.
Foreign documents. When the translation of a foreign title is supplied, it appears in Roman, in parentheses, with only proper nouns capped.
Publishers. Generally, publisher’s names in references: full names and supplied consistently throughout the references. Where possible, give current names of publishers: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Grammar: restrictive and nonrestrictive. OL style is to use “that” for restrictive (essential) relative clauses, and “which” only for nonrestrictive (nonessential) clauses. In relative clauses, when not preceded by a preposition, “which” should be preceded by a comma.
Subject-verb agreement. Watch out for a phrase or clause that separates a subject from its verb. (Occasionally, instead of using a verb that agrees with the subject, an author will use a verb that agrees with the singular/plural of the intruding phrase or clause.)
Pronoun referents. If it is not clear to what or whom a pronoun is referring, remove it and repeat the noun. (Lean toward the author’s usage, unless you as a reader had to pause to figure it out.)
Pronoun overuse. Book-review writers often are guilty of overusing “he” or “she” when referring to an author. Interrupt long strings of pronouns by occasionally substituting the last name for the pronoun—no need to overdo this. Recent OL book-review practice of using initial of author’s surname for references after the first is a viable alternative for reviews.
Case. Linguists, for whom “case” is a technical term, should not contribute to its overuse, something that is endemic in many disciplines today. There are many good substitutes to help us: “it is not the case . . .” > “it is not true . . .”; “It is the case that he is older than I am.” > “He is older than I am.”; “in this case” > “in this instance”; and so forth.