The Conventional Status of Reflexive Awareness: What’s at Stake in a Tibetan Debate?
Jay L. Garfield, 201
rJe Tsong khapa argues that consciousness is not intrinsically reflexive even conventionally, and reads Candrakīrti and Śantideva as endorsing this view. ‘Ju Mipham Rinpoche (1846–1912) criticizes Tsong khapa’s argument and his reading of Candrakīrti, arguing that while ultimately consciousness is not intrinsically reflexive, conventionally it is. This article defends Tsong khapa’s philosophy of mind and his hermeneutical strategy and shows that this debate is important both philosophically and doxographically.
The Confucian Notion of Jing 敬 (Respect)
Sin Yee Chan, 229
Jing (respect) in ancient Confucianism can be seen as referring to either a frame of mind or an intentional state that includes the elements of singlemindedness, concentration, seriousness, caution, and a strong sense of responsibility. Hence, it can be seen as a due regard based on the perception of the worth of its object. It is the central element and the germ of li (ritual). A critical comparison is made between jing and the ideas of appraisal respect, recognition respect, and identification respect as discussed in Western ethics.
We may better understand the development of the Neo-Confucian religious-ethical tradition in East Asia if we can discern the different ways that the scholars of Japan and Korea reacted to and adjusted the discourse of the tradition. Focusing on the optimistic concept of human nature and an ethic of situation developed by the Kogakuha scholars in Japan, we will contrast them with the more rigoristic philosophy of kyŏng (reverential seriousness) and an ethic of principle emphasized by the Korean Neo-Confucian thinkers Yi T’oegye and Yi Yulgok. By doing so, we attempt to delineate the salient characteristics of the Japanese and Korean traditions of moral culture.
This article presents and interprets a number of neglected paradoxes in early Chinese philosophical texts (ca. 500–100 B.C.). Looking beyond well-known paradoxes put forward by masters such as Hui Shi and Gongsun Long, it intends to complement our picture of Warring States and early Western Han paradoxical statements. The first section contrasts the neglected paradoxes with the well-known ones. It is contended here that our understanding of these latter paradoxes is hampered by a lack of context and that the neglected paradoxes possess an interpretative advantage by virtue of their being context-embedded. The second section presents an overview of three groups of neglected paradoxes, showing that the paradoxical effect of these paradoxes results from a challenge to the semantics of their central terms. The third section discusses the distribution of the paradoxes throughout the early literature and concludes that they typically appear in ‘‘Daoist’’ writings. The final section proposes a semantic-rhetorical interpretation. Placing the paradoxes against the background of the features and use of important terms, it is argued that they constitute unorthodox redefinitions and are formulated to influence the behavior and values of their intended audience.
Zhuangzi’s Dao as Background Noise
Frank W. Stevenson, 301
This interpretation of Zhuangzi’s Dao, particularly in the ‘‘Qi Wu Lun,’’ as ‘‘background noise’’ begins from Zhuangzi’s question as to whether any human statements—and human language itself—can ultimately be distinguished from the ‘‘peeps of baby birds.’’ The essay explores a tentative model of Dao that sees it as neither fully ‘‘linguistic’’ nor ‘‘non-linguistic’’ but as ‘‘pre-linguistic,’’ the potential ground of emergence of words, statements, and meanings. To develop this model we turn to the notion of background noise in physics, especially as discussed by Michel Serres in his discussion of chaos and information theory. A crucial feature of the Serresian chaos-theory model and also, it is suggested here, of Zhuangzi’s Dao is the tendency of hyper-order to return (or switch) back to the initial state of disorder.
COMMENT AND DISCUSSION
Yet Another Attempt to Salvage Pristine Perceptions!
Monima Chadha, 333
Living Zen, Loving God, by Ruben L. F. Habito
Reviewed by Robert E. Carter, 343
Zen War Stories, by Brian Daizen Victoria
Reviewed by Steven Heine, 345
A Treatise on Efficacy: Between Western and Chinese Thinking, by François Jullien, translated by Janet Lloyd
Reviewed by Jeremy E. Henkel, 347
Imagining Japan: The Japanese Tradition and Its Modern Interpretation, by Robert N. Bellah
Reviewed by Ian Reader, 351
Seeing Through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism, by John R. McRae
Reviewed by Albert Welter, 355
Shinto: The Way Home: Dimensions of Asian Spirituality, by Thomas P. Kasulis
Reviewed by Jason M. Wirth, 358
Political Philosophy in Japan: Nishida, the Kyoto School, and Co-Prosperity, by Christopher S. Goto-Jones
Reviewed by Michiko Yusa, 361